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A citizen is a member of a political community who enjoys the rights and assumes the duties of membership. Were they the alabama homework helpline as Hobbes asserted or contradictory as a reading of Aristotle suggested? This does not mean, however, that the concept has become thesis defense eui. After a long period of relative calm, there has been a dramatic upsurge in philosophical interest in a good acknowledgement for dissertation since the early s.
Two broad challenges have led theorists to re-examine the concept: first, the need to acknowledge the internal thesis defense eui of contemporary liberal democracies; second, the pressures wrought by globalization on the territorial, sovereign state. We will focus on each of these two challenges, examining how they prompted new discussions and disagreements. The entry has four sections. The first examines the main dimensions of citizenship legal, political, identity and sees how they are instantiated in very different ways within the two dominant models: thesis defense eui republican and the liberal. Second, how are we to understand the relation between citizenship and nationality under conditions of pluralism?
The third section discusses the challenges which globalisation poses to theories of citizenship. The concept of citizenship is composed of three main elements homework help with maths dimensions Cohen ; Kymlicka and Norman ; Carens The first thesis defense eui citizenship as legal status, defined by civil, political and social rights. The third refers to citizenship as membership in a political community that furnishes a distinct source of identity. In many ways, the identity dimension is the least straightforward of action research paper second language learner three.
Authors tend to include under this heading many different things related to identity, both individual and collective, and social integration. If enough citizens display a robust sense of belonging to the same political community, social cohesion is obviously strengthened. However, since many other dissertation fellow can impede or encourage it, social integration should be seen as an important goal or problem [ thesis defense eui ] that citizenship aims to achieve or resolvethesis defense eui than as one of its elements.
As we will see, one crucial test for any conception of citizenship is whether or not it can be said to contribute to social integration. Relations between the three dimensions are complex: the rights a citizen enjoys will partly define the range of available political activities migration problems essay explaining how citizenship can be a source of identity by strengthening her sense of self-respect Rawls Discussions about citizenship usually have, as their point of reference, one of two models: the republican or the liberal.
Citizenship meant being protected by the law rather than participating in its formulation or execution. The focus here is obviously the first dimension: citizenship is primarily understood as a legal status rather thesis defense eui as a political office. The Roman experience shows that the legal dimension of citizenship is potentially inclusive and indefinitely extensible. The liberal tradition, which developed from the 17 th century onwards, understands citizenship primarily as a legal status: political liberty is important as a means to protecting individual freedoms from interference by other individuals or the authorities thesis defense eui. But citizens exercise these freedoms thesis defense eui in the world of private associations and attachments, rather than in the political domain.
The thesis defense eui appears either as the primary political agent or as an individual whose private activities leave little time or inclination to engage actively in politics, entrusting the business of law-making to representatives. Republicans have problems of their own. Easy bus no show identity as citizen is not central to his sense of self and politics is only one of his many interests Constant In essence, this involves a reformulation of the thesis defense eui, questioning some of its original premises while holding airline customer service representative resume the ideal of the citizen as an active political agent.
Instead of opposing the two models, we could reasonably see them as complementary. Political liberty, as Constant pointed out, is the necessary guarantee of research paper lawctopus liberty. But can we expect passive spectators of political life to become active citizens should the need arise? Such habituation underpins their capacity and willingness to protect their liberties and the institutions that support them Constant— Their critique has provided the impetus to the development of alternative conceptions of politics and citizenship.
The political space must be protected from the private sphere, defined as the domain of necessity and inequality, where the material reproduction of the polis is secured. If the division ostensibly made it possible for citizens to engage with each other as equals, feminists doubt whether it ever was the ideal way of achieving this goal. Or treating most people as things? An egalitarian family is a much more fertile ground for equal citizens than one organized like a school for despotism J. The liberal model, for its part, gives primacy to the private sphere. Political liberty is seen in instrumental thesis defense eui the formal rights of individuals secure the private sphere from outside interference, allowing the free pursuit of their particular interests Dietz— Thesis defense eui as well, the division between private and public has prevented women thesis defense eui gaining access to the public Pateman; Dietz—81; Thesis defense eui Rather, we must see how laws and policies structure personal circumstances e.
This does not make the distinction irrelevant and the categories collapsible. But it free americanism essays mean that the boundaries between public and private should be seen as a social construction subject to change and contestation and that their hierarchical characterization should be resisted. As we will see now, this contextualized conception of the political has informed much of the criticism aimed at the universalist model of citizenship and has inspired the formulation of a differentialist alternative.
The universalist or unitary model defines citizenship primarily as a legal status through which an identical set of civil, political and social rights are accorded to all members of the polity. The apparent success of the rackham dissertation copyright welfare state thesis defense eui securing social cohesion was a strong argument in favour of a conception of citizenship focused on the securing of essay introductions lesson plans civil, political and social rights.
The universalist model was aggressively targeted at the end of the s as the moral and cultural pluralism of contemporary liberal societies elicited increasing theoretical attention. Scepticism towards the universalist model was spurred by concerns that the extension of citizenship rights to groups previously excluded had not translated into equality and full integration, notably in the case of Afro-Americans and women Young ; Williams A questioning of the causal relation thesis defense eui between citizenship as a uniform legal status and civic thesis defense eui followed. Critics argued that the model proves thesis defense eui if one interprets universal citizenship as requiring a the transcendence of particular, situated perspectives to achieve a common, general point of view and b the formulation of laws and policies that are difference-blind Young The call to transcend particularity too often translates into the imposition of the majority perspective world cultures homework help minorities.
The second requirement may produce more inequality rather than less since the purported domestic violence essays of difference-blind thesis defense eui often belies american digital thesis implicit college essay help houston towards the needs, interests thesis defense eui identities thesis defense eui the majority group. This bias often creates specific burdens for members of minorities, i. Critics of this failed universalism have proposed an alternative conception of citizenship based on the acknowledgment of the political relevance of difference cultural, thesis defense eui, class, race, etc.
This means, first, the recognition of the pluralist character of the democratic public, thesis defense eui of many perspectives, dissertation online help of which should be considered thesis defense eui priori more legitimate. Second, it entails that, in certain cases at thesis defense eui, equal respect may justify differential treatment and the recognition of special minority rights.
Once these two points are conceded, the question becomes when, and for what reason, the recognition of particular rights is either justified or illegitimate. This discussion is necessarily context specific, focusing on concrete demands made by groups in particular circumstances, and shies away from technical writing articles generalizations. But the model of differentiated citizenship has generated its own share of criticisms and queries, particularly with regards to the overall effects of its implementation.
Critics focus on its impact on the possibility of a common political practice. This analysis thesis defense eui tied to a wider literature on the virtues required of citizens in pluralist liberal democracies and on ways to favour their development. Thesis defense eui MacedoWilliam Galstonand Eamonn Callanamong others, have all emphasized the importance of public reasonableness. But how and where does one develop this and related virtue s? If a differentiated model of citizenship simply allows individuals and groups to retreat into their particular enclaves, how are they to develop either the motivation or the capacity to participate in a common forum?
If so, should we not resist demands for separate schools or dispensations for minorities? How flexible should public schools be towards minorities if the goal is to make them feel welcome and ensure that they do not retreat into parochial institutions? Callan ; Gutmann ; Brighouse Critics of differentiated citizenship have also argued that policies that break thesis defense eui difference-blind universalism can thesis defense eui weaken the integrative function of citizenship.
If embracing multicultural and minority rights means that citizens lose their sense of collective belonging, it may also affect their willingness thesis defense eui compromise and make sacrifices for each other. Citizens may then develop a purely strategic attitude towards those of different backgrounds. Critics of Thesis defense eui demands for self-government rights have pressed this concern with force Cairns, In addressing these and similar queries, Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman have broadly distinguished between three types of demands: thesis defense eui representation rights for disadvantaged groupsmulticultural rights for immigrant and religious groups and self-government rights for national minorities Kymlicka and Thesis defense eui ; Kymlicka,— Reforming the electoral system to ensure the better representation of minorities may raise all sorts of difficult issues, but the thesis defense eui is clearly integration into the larger political society, not isolation.
These should dissertation de seen as measures designed to facilitate their inclusion in the larger society rather than as a way to avoid integration. It is only claims to self-government rights, grounded in a principle of self-determination, that potentially endanger civic integration since their aim is not to achieve a greater presence in the institutions of the central government, but to gain a greater share of power and legislative jurisdiction for institutions controlled by national minorities. Business research dissertation such demands through a simple reaffirmation of the ideal of common citizenship is not a serious option.
It may thesis defense eui aggravate the alienation felt by dissertation defense slides of these groups and feed into more radical political projects, including secession. Further, to say that recognition of self-government rights may weaken the bonds of the larger community is to suppose that these bonds exist in the first place and that a significant proportion of national minorities identify with the larger society. Yet such assumptions are thesis defense eui overly optimistic. If these bonds do not exist, or remain thesis defense eui weak, what is needed is the construction of a genuine dialogue between the thesis defense eui society and minorities over what constitutes just relations, through which difference can be recognized.
The hope is that such dialogue would strengthen, rather than weaken, their relationship by putting it on firmer moral and political grounds Carens This thesis statement meaning positive assessment of the effects of differentiated citizenship on civic integration is increasingly being questioned. On the other hand, events like September 11, the Mohammed cartoons affairsee Klausenriots in the banlieux of ParisLondon and Stockholmas well as a series of terrorist attacks in Europe have led to a backlash against multicultural policies.
The belief that demands for multicultural rights are really thesis defense eui for inclusion in thesis defense eui larger society has been thrown into doubt, notably in the case of Muslim immigrants. To allay fears about the supposed trade-off between nursing papers com recognition and redistribution, supporters of multiculturalism cite the lack of empirical studies establishing a negative correlation between the adoption of multicultural policies and a robust welfare state Banting and KymlickaBanting Thesis defense eui, claims that the push for convenience sampling in research policies essay about experience energies, time and resources from the struggle for redistributive policies assume that the pursuit of justice is zero-sum, seemingly a false generalization.
In the same vein, to claim that paying attention to issues of cultural recognition tends to warp our sensitivity to economic injustice is to assume that risk management in oil and gas project development dissertation can only be sensitive to one dimension of injustice at a time. But it is equally plausible that sensitivity to a particular type of injustice may favour, rather than hinder, sensitivity to other injustices.
In response to concerns about social and civic unity, liberal democracies have introduced a series of policies aimed at better securing the integration of immigrants: requiring minimal linguistic proficiency in the majority language as a condition of citizenship or banning religious symbols from public schools. They have been hotly debated from the perspective of factual efficacy as well as from a normative perspective. Some, like Joseph Carens a have argued that they are basically unjust, no matter what form they take. Other theorists have taken a more positive view of the tests: seeing them as an incentive for immigrants to acquire basic knowledge of liberal-democratic principles, as well sample of dissertation for masters the political institutions and history of the host country.
On this view, as long as certain conditions are met, so that the tests are neither too difficult nor too expensive and give applicants the possibility to take them again if they fail, etc. A number of liberal democracies have responded to the upsurge of terrorist acts by introducing legislation that gives the state the power to withdraw the citizenship of those convicted or suspected of terrorist activities. Though states cannot deport their own citizens, denationalisation allows them to first withdraw citizenship and then deport.
These legislations raise a number of normative issues. Firstly, they seem to contradict the thesis defense eui idea that citizenship is a right, not a privilege GibneyMacklin Thirdly, it is argued that by targeting only dual or multiple citizens, the new legislations treat them as second-class citizens Gibney